The National Flag of Korea

The National Flower of Korea

The Korean flag (태극기) is called "Taegeukgi" in Korean. Its design symbolizes the principles of the yin and yang in Oriental philosophy. The circle in the center of the Korean flag is divided into two equal parts. The upper red section represents the proactive cosmic forces of the yang. Conversely, the lower blue section represents the responsive cosmic forces of the yin. The two forces together embody the concepts of continual movement, balance and harmony that characterize the sphere of infinity. The circle is surrounded by four trigrams, one in each corner. Each trigram symbolizes one of the four universal elements:

The national flower of Korea is the mugunghwa (무궁화), rose of sharon. Every year from July to October, a profusion of mugunghwa blossoms graces the entire country. Unlike most flowers, the mugunghwa is remarkably tenacious and able to withstand both blight and insects. The flower’s symbolic significance stems from the Korean word mugung, meaning immortality. This word accurately reflects the enduring nature of Korean culture, and the determination and perseverance of the Korean people.

Dokdo, the easternmost island in East Sea, is an integral part of Korean territory historically, geographically, and under international law. No territorial dispute exists regarding Dokdo, and Dokdo is not a matter to be dealt with through diplomatic negotiations or judicial settlement.

The Government of the Republic of Korea exercises Korea’s irrefutable territorial sover- eignty over Dokdo. The Government will deal firmly and resolutely with any provocation and will continue to defend Korea’s sovereignty over the island.

Dokdo, the easternmost island in East Sea, is an integral part of Korean territory historically, geographically, and under international law. No territorial dispute exists regarding Dokdo, and Dokdo is not a matter to be dealt with through diplomatic negotiations or judicial settlement.

The Government of the Republic of Korea exercises Korea’s irrefutable territorial sover- eignty over Dokdo. The Government will deal firmly and resolutely with any provocation and will continue to defend Korea’s sovereignty over the island.

Consistent records pertaining to Dokdo are also found in other government publications, including Sinjeung Dongguk Yeoji Seungnam (Revised and Augmented Survey of the Geo- graphy of Korea), 1531; Dongguk Munheon Biggo (Reference Compilation of Documents on Korea), 1770; Man-gi Yoram (Manual of State Affairs for the Monarch), 1808; and Je- ungbo Munheon Biggo (Revised and Enlarged Edition of the Reference Compilation of Docu- ments on Korea), 1908.

Particularly noteworthy is the record in the volume “Yeojigo” in Dongguk Munheon Biggo (Reference Compilation of Documents on Korea), 1770, which states, “Ulleung [Ulleungdo] and Usan [Dokdo] are both territories of Usan- guk [Usan State], and Usan [Dokdo] is what Japan refers to as Matsushima [the old Japanese name for Dokdo].” This passage makes it evi- dent that Usando is present-day Dokdo and that it is Korean territory.

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